ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST

Raja K. Al-Khalili, Shadi S. Neimneh.

Abstract
Early in the twentieth century, traveling abroad left an impact on the English citizens in two
major ways. There was a group who, after returning to England, reflected on the details of their travel and
became skeptical of their government, and there were others whose experiences led them to glorify the British
Empire. The reason behind choices of glorification or skepticism had to do with the cause of such travel.
Primarily, Englishmen and women traveled for administering the expanding British Empire and meeting its need
for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. Usually, middle-class
employees were traveling for work in underdeveloped nations such as India at that time. The other form of
travel was for pleasure and usually undertaken by the wealthy, and it included the colonies and Europe. This
form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism. In both travel forms, the English citizen
encountered a myriad of cultures and reacted differently to them. However, while travel fostered a sense of
national pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, it also brought a critical selfexamination
of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Said's theory on
"Orientalism," Clifford's concept of "travel" and Lefebvre's understanding of spatial politics are used to analyze
the meanings of space/places as produced in E. M. Forster's A Passage to India (1924) and Evelyn Waugh‘s A
Handful of Dust (1934). The article argues that the novels represent the two aforementioned types of travel as
well as the ways in which the English reacted to their expanding Empire. Hence, the novels provide a cultural
critique of the impact of colonization and related travel on the English. Using the middle-class fascination with
travel, Forster and Waugh voiced their criticism of British colonial history and the negative impact it had on
personal and social relationships. In each case, travel is not an innocent endeavor, but one fraught with
sociopolitical and cultural meanings and deeply rooted in imperial power relations.

Key words: E. M. Forster; E. Waugh; Modern English Literature; Empire; Travel Literature


 
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Pubmed Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. JCR. 2020; 7(19): 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269


Web Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=114872 [Access: September 15, 2020]. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. JCR. 2020; 7(19): 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. JCR. (2020), [cited September 15, 2020]; 7(19): 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



Harvard Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh (2020) TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. JCR, 7 (19), 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



Turabian Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. 2020. TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (19), 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



Chicago Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. "TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST." Journal of Critical Reviews 7 (2020), 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh. "TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST." Journal of Critical Reviews 7.19 (2020), 2245-2252. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Raja K. Al-Khalili , Shadi S. Neimneh (2020) TRAVELING ABROAD AND THE OF ENGLISH IDENTITY AND CULTURE IN E. M. FORSTER’S A PASSAGE TO INDIA AND EVELYN WAUGH’S A CONSTRUCTION HANDFUL OF DUST. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7 (19), 2245-2252. doi:10.31838/jcr.07.19.269