ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh.

Abstract
Smoking is responsible for the death of 1 out of 10 adults. Smokers are exposed to gaseous (such as nitrogen
and carbon monoxide) and particulate agents (tar and nicotine). Tobacco and drinking water are considered
among the human-made resources of exposure to cadmium, group I carcinogen, lead-enhancing delta-aminolevulinic-
acid dehydrase in urine, and chromium, pulmonary carcinogen. This descriptive-analytical research
aims to examine the relationship of drug abuse with the concentrations of cadmium, lead, and chromium
among smokers and non-smokers under the auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, in 2019, by sampling.This
was a descriptive-analytical study on smokers and non-smokers under the auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran,
on May 2019, via questionnaire and testing. The sample size was 30 (case-control sampling method). The
collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that was completed in the center. The questionnaire
included demographic variables(11 items), history of drug use(17 items), information on the history of highrisk
behaviors(5 areas and 21 items), medical and psychiatric background(5 items), screening for psychiatric
disorders(2 areas and 10 items), family status(12 items), and previous treatment(5 items) and was completed
by the individuals. The collected information was analyzed in SPSS 21. To achieve the research objectives,
paired t-test and Chi-square tests with the significance level of 0.05 were used.Mean concentrations of
cadmium, chromium, and lead in the control group at Behjoo Center were obtained equal to 4.32.2(2.4-4.9),
4.52.1(4.9-2.6), and 14.43.2(7.9-16.9) (ppb), respectively. Mean urinary concentrations of cadmium,
chromium, and lead in the patient group at Behjoo Center were obtained as 36.56.3(26.4-49.5), 38.36.5
(29.1-52.4), and 46.17.2(32.2-56.3), respectively. Mean age of the control and patient groups was equal to
33.458.5(21-50) and 31.557.5(52-20). The mean urinary concentration of cadmium in the patients was 20
times higher than the global NIOSH standards. Mean concentration of cadmium in the urine of the patients
was about 740% higher than that of the control group. Therefore, it is essential to include the dangers of
smoking and drug abuse in the educational planning of all educational stages.

Key words: Addiction, Behjoo Center,Chrumium, Cigarettes, Lead, Urinary Cadmium


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. JCR. 2021; 8(1): 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22


Web Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=46666 [Access: May 31, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. JCR. 2021; 8(1): 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. JCR. (2021), [cited May 31, 2021]; 8(1): 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



Harvard Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh (2021) Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. JCR, 8 (1), 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



Turabian Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. 2021. Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (1), 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



Chicago Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. "Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019." Journal of Critical Reviews 8 (2021), 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh. "Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019." Journal of Critical Reviews 8.1 (2021), 173-179. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kashi Giti, Nourieh Nafiseh (2021) Studying relationship of drug abuse with concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and lead in smokers and non-smokers under auspices of Behjoo Center, Tehran, 2019. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (1), 173-179. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.22