ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet.

Abstract
The research assessed the concentration level ofheavy metals and total hydrocarbon in Qua Iboe River
Estuary ofAkwaIbom State, Nigeria during the months of April, May and June. The experimental
research design was adopted and a total of 72 water samples were collected on weekly basis from ST1,
ST2 and ST3 during high and low tides in thoroughly-rinsed 1-litre plastic containers to avoid
adulteration of the samples. Samples were analysed in-situ and in the laboratory using standard methods.
The results of the concentrations of the sampled parameters during high tide included: Cr (0.003-0.21mgl-
1), Fe (0.123-0.511mgl-1); Mn (0.018-0.66mgl-1), Pb (0.105-0.603mgl-1), Mg (0.42-0.623mgl-1), Cu (0.00-
0.32mgl-1) and THC (0.12-0.88mgl-1)while the low tide concentrations showed: Cr (0.001-0.061mgl-1), Fe
(0.56-4.11mgl-1), Mn (0.002-0.13mgl-1), Pb (0.011-0.211mgl-1), Mg (0.108-1.342mgl-1), Cu (0.011-
0.076mgl-1) and THC (0.23-0.80mgl-1). The concentrations of Hg and as were negligible throughout the
study. Analysis revealed that THC varied significantly across the sampled stations (ANOVA, P <0.001).
Pollution Index, PI <1 for Ni, Mn, Na, Hg, As, Mg and Cu, implied that there was no pollution in the
estuary. Fe showed that the estuary was slightly polluted with PI 1-2; Cr, V and THC recorded PI 2-3
signifying that the water was moderately polluted; PI >5 for Pbrevealed that the estuary was seriously
polluted with lead. The oil spills by ExxonMobil’s offshore platforms in the area, the heinous practices of
waste dumping along the coast have resulted in the high THC and heavy metals concentrations found in
the water samples. Hence, the water in Qua Iboe River Estuary is polluted and not safe for personal or
domestic uses. The study recommended that ExxonMobil and other oil companies in Nigeria should
adhere strictly to international best practices in oil exploration/exploitation, environmental conservation,
maintenance of equipment and safety of their infrastructure should be their priority. Prompt actions
should be taken towards clean-up exercises in case of oil spill incidents in the area and proper, modern
sewage and solid wastes disposal mechanism should be put in place by the host communities.

Key words: Evaluation, heavy metals, total hydrocarbon, pollution level, Qua Iboe River Estuary


 
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Pubmed Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. JCR. 2021; 8(1): 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33


Web Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=48001 [Access: May 31, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. JCR. 2021; 8(1): 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. JCR. (2021), [cited May 31, 2021]; 8(1): 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



Harvard Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet (2021) EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. JCR, 8 (1), 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



Turabian Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. 2021. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (1), 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



Chicago Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. "EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA." Journal of Critical Reviews 8 (2021), 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet. "EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA." Journal of Critical Reviews 8.1 (2021), 285-304. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Eni, Devalsam Imoke, Ekong Ame Edet (2021) EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION IN THE QUA IBOE RIVER ESTUARY, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (1), 285-304. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.01.33