ISSN 2394-5125
 

Research Article 


Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards)

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour.

Abstract
Today, development has become one of the main concerns of different regions of the world. Investigating the
various factors and variables affecting the development process, especially urban development, has become
inevitable. One of the important and influential variables that is closely linked to development and lack of
development is social capital. Therefore, paying attention to social capital and its impact on sustainable urban and
economic development, both at the macro level (country) and micro level (cities) is of particular importance and
various studies have been conducted in different parts of the world in this area. The main purpose of this paper is to
investigate and research around the impact of social capital on urban development in Erbil, the capital of the
Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq. The main question in this article is: What is the relationship between social
capital and urban development in Erbil?
The hypothesis that comes up in response to the main question: the weakness of social capital indicators (trust,
cohesion, participation and social awareness of citizens) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has led to the instability of
urban development in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This study uses survey method to test other sub-hypotheses

Key words: Erbil, Social Capital, Urban Development, Unsustainable Development


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). JCR. 2021; 8(2): 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134


Web Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). http://www.jcreview.com/?mno=85104 [Access: June 03, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). JCR. 2021; 8(2): 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). JCR. (2021), [cited June 03, 2021]; 8(2): 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



Harvard Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour (2021) Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). JCR, 8 (2), 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



Turabian Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. 2021. Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (2), 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



Chicago Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. "Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards)." Journal of Critical Reviews 8 (2021), 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour. "Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards)." Journal of Critical Reviews 8.2 (2021), 1338-1349. Print. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Lashkr aliakabar, Farhad Daneshnia, Siavash Gholipour (2021) Lack of social capital and its impact on urban development, Erbil city )from 2003 onwards). Journal of Critical Reviews, 8 (2), 1338-1349. doi:10.31838/jcr.08.02.134