Rising Burden of Cardiac Diseases in Urban New Delhi: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence (2020)
Mr Mohd Areeb Dr Ashar Imam JCR. 2020: 2328-2333
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially coronary heart disease (CHD), have emerged as the leading cause of mortality in urban India. This literature review synthesizes robust evidence on the increasing prevalence of CHD and cardiovascular risk factors among the adult population of New Delhi over the past two decades. Data from a landmark repeat cross-sectional epidemiological study published in 2017 found that CHD's age- and sex-standardized prevalence rose by 37% between 1991-94 and 2010-12, from 10.3% to 14.1%. The increase was predominantly driven by a 60% rise in CHD prevalence among urban women, from 10.1% to 16.6%. Key factors driving this escalation include rapid urbanization, sedentary lifestyles, changing diets, and surging incidence of major cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The proportion of adults with high 10-year cardiovascular risk doubled from 2.5% to 4.8% during this period. The review discusses the study methodology, results, implications and policy recommendations for controlling the rising prevalence of cardiac diseases threatening the health of citizens in one of India's largest metropolises. It emphasizes the urgent need for comprehensive, multi-sectoral prevention strategies spanning primordial, primary and secondary prevention to halt the CVD epidemic.
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