SUBALTERN WOMEN MOVEMENT: FROM EXPLOITATION TO NEGOTIATION (2023)
M. Khusna Amal dan Sofkhatin Khumaidah JCR. 2023: 1-11
This article underlines that the unequal patterns of social relations does not immediately create dependency, passiveness, and total submission of the dominated to the dominant social class. This phenomenon is clearly shown by local movement of Pace women living around the area of commercial agricultural enterprise. Through their limited power and local resources such as the bounds of genetic relationship, friendship, and communal solidarity, of which they made use as cultural capital in fighting for their family’s rights of survival. When life becomes harder, choices are increasingly limited, and unfortunateness transformed itself into certainty, there are always unpredictable choices made by the sub-altern group. They almost always find a way out from completely difficult situation., even though it is just informal, if not illegal.
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